Day 2 :
The National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Israel
Keynote: What the neuro and rehabilitation sciences can offer the management of obesity and weight management?
Time : 10:00-10:40
Gerry Leisman is Director and Professor of the National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences in Nazareth, Israel and as Professor of Restorative Neurology at Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Facultad Manuel Fajardo, Havana, Cuba. He has examined self-organizing systems in thenervous system applied to cognitive functions in memory,kinesiology, optimization, consciousness, and autism. He has appliedoptimization strategies to movement, gait, and cognition. In the 1970’s, he was one of the fi rst to identify functional disconnectivities in the brain.His work in Rehabilitation Sciences, has applied the tools ofIndustrial Engineering to those with developmental disabilities and to health promotion in adults using the tools of neuro and cognitive sciences.
Objectives: To apply the knowledge of neuroscience in managing obesity and movement in education and office environments.
Methods: We review data that motor processes contribute to cognitive function. We present fi ndings of how movement
contributes to synaptogenesis and neuroplasticity and increased BDNF in rats and brain state changes in children and adults.
Results: Motor and cognitive processes have dynamical bidirectional relationships. Rodent research has revealed that exercise infl uences the striatum by increasing dopamine signaling and angiogenesis. In children, higher aerobic fitness levels are associated with greater hippocampal volumes, superior performance on tasks of attentional and interference control, and elevated event-related brain potential indices of executive function.
Conclusions: We endeavor to integrate the Neurosciences, Cognitive Psychology and Biomechanics in providing a fundamental understanding of the relation between intention, decision-making, and movement in the context of functional connectivity, awareness, attention, and action. Th e lack of movement represented in offi ce work and youngsters fettered to video games reduces the ability to formulate eff ective connectivities. Because children and adults are becoming increasingly overweight, unhealthy and unfi t, understanding the neurocognitive benefi ts of an active lifestyle during childhood has important public health and educational implications. Methods will be discussed to eff ect weight and health management in educational and workplace environments.
Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Serbia
Keynote: Nontypical points of obesity
Time : 10:40-11:20
Edita Stokić, MD, PhD, is an Endocrinologist, Professor of Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, employed in the Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, Medical Faculty, Serbia. In 2005, she was appointed as Chief of Department. She is currently the Vice President of Serbian Association for the Study of Obesity and Chairman of the Continuing Education Board (Society of Physicians of Vojvodina of the Medical Society of Serbia). She was President of the Internal Medicine Section and President of Endocrinology Section within same Society. She is an author or co-author of 412 scientifi c articles, and has publications on obesity, dyslipidemias and diabetes. She has also published monographs namely Obesity is a Treatable Disease, and Obesity and Adipose Tissue Distribution – Metabolic Consequences.
During past few years the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically. Obesity traditionally has been defi ned as adisease characterized by body fat accumulation to an extent that causes health disturbances, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, sleep apnea, gallbladder disease and some types of cancer. On the other side, obesity isn’t homogeneous disease- cardiometabolic disturbances, which are associated with obesity, do not, however, aff ect all obese people. Several studies suggest that "Metabolically healthy but obese" - MHO people show specifi c phenotype and body composition differences compared with obese patients “at risk”. MHO individuals exhibit lower total and intra-abdominal fat mass, lower ectopic fat accumulation and favorable metabolic, hormonal, immune and inflammatory profi le. It is not clear what induces potential transition from metabolically healthy to unhealthy profile, and whether genetic, environmental, lifestyle and psychosocial factors have role. Metabolically obese but normal weight – MONW individuals present a subgroup of individuals with normal BMI, and with insulin resistance, higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis and mortality. Th e early identifi cation of individuals with the MONW phenotype would be benefi cial and may have important therapeutic implications. Clinical guidelines should be target more to MHO population, especially to standardization of definition criteria. Future studies should elucidate mechanisms of preserved favorable metabolic profile, and specifi c dynamics of metabolic and neuroendocrine processes in MHO individuals, which may be helpful in tailoring potential interventions.
Charles University, Czech Republic
Time : 11:45-12:25
Vaclav Bunc has obtained his PhD from TU Prague in 1979. He is a Vice-dean of Faculty of Physical Education and Sport at Charles University Prague. His main research topics are obesity management, application of mathematical methods and models in PE and sport, evaluation of physical fitness, exercise physiology, functional and physical testing in laboratory and field, body composition, BIA methods and moving regimes for prevention. He has published more than 350 papers in Czech and internationally reputed journals and is serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.
The current epidemic of obesity is a problem not only to public health, but each individual. It is up to about 5% of cases the problem of education and not medicine. For an effective intervention it is necessary in the first place timely to identify its initial stages and simultaneously identify the variables that can aff ect by the external interventions. Th e basic tool for successful intervention is to change the lifestyle of intervened individuals – from sedentary to active. The first step is early diagnostics and then selecting individual approach that respects the health, previous experience physical, physical fitness, time and economic conditions and the relationship with its surroundings to influence obesity of the subject. The movement intervention with the weekly energy content ranged from 1500 kcal to 2700 kcal (depending on subject’s body mass) in the time duration of 5 months is able to cause a decline in the mean %BF of about 24.0%, and increase in the mean VO2peak about 14.0% (both independently on body mass, age and gender). We can conclude that an exercise program with a similar energy content, form and intensity causes the similar changes in BC and in motor and functional performance in subjects, diff ering in body mass, age and gender.